USCG – Navigation Rules – International-Inland
Use of AIS for Collision Avoidance
USE OF AIS IN COLLISION AVOIDANCE SITUATIONS (IMO Res. A.1106(29))
40 The potential of AIS as an assistance for anti-collision device is recognized and AIS may be recommended as such a device in due time.
41 Nevertheless, AIS information may merely be used to assist in collision avoidance decision-making. When using the AIS in the ship-to-ship mode for anti-collision purposes, the following cautionary points should be borne in mind:
.1 AIS is an additional source of navigational information. It does not replace, but supports, navigational systems such as radar target-tracking and VTS; and
.2 the use of AIS does not negate the responsibility of the OOW to comply at all times with the Collision Regulations, particularly rule 7 when determining whether risk of collisions exists.
IMO Resolution A.1106(29) REVISED GUIDELINES FOR THE ONBOARD OPERATIONAL USE OF SHIPBORNE AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS (AIS)
Collision Avoidance : AIS vs. ARPA – Madden Maritime
The Use of AIS for Collision Avoidance – Ivica Tijardovic – 2010
TransNav – Comparative Study of the Accuracy of AIS and ARPA Indications – Part 1 – CPA – 2018
TransNav – Comparative Study of the Accuracy of AIS and ARPA Indications – Part 2 – COG-SOG – 2018
Use of VHF in Collision Avoidance
Steamship Mutual – Use of VHF in collision avoidance – April 2018
Have a look at this case study video; created for ‘Human Elements’ training a long time back on an actual incident of ships collision due to VHF based navigation. While INTERTANKO Competency Management Guidance (ICMG) is coming up soon to incorporate ‘Behavioural Competency Assessment and Verification for Vessel Operators (CAV)’, we feel the need has been there for a long time in the maritime industry. The ‘Human Elements or Behaviour Based Training’ in the maritime industry has to be more innovative. Adoption of case-studies & incidents into videos or films can play a significant role in imparting practical training. www.mplusmaritime.com
UK MCA MGN 167 – Dangers in the Use of VHF Radio in Collision Avoidance