Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS)

WMU – Transport 2040 – Autonomous ships – A new paradigm for Norwegian shipping – Technology and transformation (2019)

Federal Register – USCG-2019-0698 – RFI Integration of Automated and Autonomous Commercial Vessels and Vessel Technologies Into the Maritime Transportation System


Bureau Veritas And The French Flag Develop Compliance For Remotely Operated Services At Sea – September 2020

Mayflower Autonomous Ship 


UK MCA RP545 – Development of guidance for the mitigation of human error in automated shipborne maritime systems – 1996

LR Code for Unmanned Marine Systems – February 2017

DNVGL-CG-0264 Autonomous and remotely operated ships – class guideline – September 2018

ABS Advisory on Autonomous Functionality – 2020

Maritime UK – Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) UK Industry Conduct Principles and Code of Practice – November 2019


White Papers

THESIS : Transas Harmonized Eco System of Integrated Solutions : Shipping’s Future Delivered Now – September 2016

ABB – B0 – A Conditionally and Periodically Unmanned Bridge – 2018


Is this the future of shipping?

Rolls Royce would like it be so….read more in their recent white paper :

AAWA : Remote and Autonomous Ships – The next steps……


The U.S. Coast Guard Navigation Safety Advisory Council (NAVSAC) has taken a more cautious stance in their 2016 resolution on “unmanned maritime systems.”  It’s fair to say that we will hear much more on this topic in the coming years.

NAVSAC Resolution 16-01 : Unmanned Maritime Systems Best Practices


COLREGS and MASS Discussed

The Collision Regulations and Autonomous Shipping – Norton Rose Fulbright – July 2020

Autonomous guidance and navigation based on the COLREGs rules and regulations of collision avoidance – Perera, Carvalho and Soares

[2016] Autonomous ships and the future : Zakirul Bhuiyan



IMAT : Integrated Maritime Autonomous Transport Systems : The IMAT project will develop and test land-based sensors, communication systems and control systems used as a support to autonomous vessels navigation and operation. The technological infrastructure will be able to provide the transportation systems with increased sensor redundancy and will be an integrated part of the shore-based control centres, which shall ensure safe and efficient operation. A reliable infrastructure is crucial for a safe implementation of maritime autonomous transport systems.

Shone : Seafarer is one of the most hazardous job on Earth. Despite this, every day, men and women sail at sea to ship 80% of our consumer goods. We believe that Artificial Intelligence is the key to provide better work conditions to the amazing people who support the world’s trade and prosperity.

L3 ASV Global : Empowering organizations with our unrivaled expertise and experience enabling them to work autonomously at sea. 

Sea Machines : Sea Machines Robotics is a forward-looking, autonomous technology company that specializes in advanced control technology for workboats and other commercial surface vessels. Based in Boston and operating globally, the company is driven by a crew of mariners, engineers, coders and autonomy scientists.

Seeing Machines : Seeing Machines, (AIM: SEE) has over 15 years of research know-how, commercial application and proven expertise in intelligent face and eye tracking technology.

Headquartered in Australia and with operations in North America, Europe, Latin America, Middle East and Asia Pacific, the company pioneers the development and commercialisation of proprietary algorithms and hardware that help machines interpret the human face and eyes in order to understand their state. This Core IP brings to life a range of technology applications that make devices and vehicles smarter, with the intelligence and ability to protect, enable and respond when intervention is required.

Affectiva : From an easy-to-use SDK and API, to robust solutions for automotive and market research, our Emotion AI is humanizing technology.


Proceeding with caution…

Lund – Rise of the Machines – A Legal analysis of Seaworthiness in the context of autonomous shipping – Kirchner (2019)

WMU – Øvergård – Observation And Assessment Of Crossing Situations Between Pleasure Craft and a Small Passenger Ferry – 2019 

Investigation on the impact of human-automation interaction in maritime operations – Pazouki-Norman – 2018

Preventing marine accidents caused by technology-induced human error – Bielic-Culin – 2017

DMA – Analysis of Regulatory Barriers to the Use of Autonomous Ships – December 2017

Models of Automation Surprise: Results of a Field Survey in Aviation – de Boers / Dekker

Regulating Autonomous Systems: Beyond Standards : Danks / London, 

The effects of level of automation and adaptive automation on human performance, situation awareness and workload in a dynamic control task – Kaber-Endsley – 2004

On Your Watch – Automation on the Bridge – Lutzhoft-Dekker – 2002

Automation Bias and Errors: Are Crews Better Than Individuals? – Skitka-Mosier-Burdick-Rosenblatt – 1998

Out-of-the-Loop Performance Problems and the Use of Intermediate Levels of Automation for Improved Control System Functioning and Safety – Kaber-Endsley – 1997

Towards a New Paradigm for Automation – Designing for Situation Awareness – Endsley – 1995

Ironies of Automation – Bainbridge, 1983






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